The Four Fundamental Forces

The Four Fundamental Forces

  • essential to realize that at present all known physical phenomena, from the Big Bang to the motion of subatomic particles, can be explained by two theories: Einstein’s general theory of relativity and the quantum theory. Together, they represent the bedrock physical laws governing all matter and energy. The first, general relativity, is the theory of the very big: relativity explains the Big Bang, the properties of black holes, and the evolution of the expanding universe. The second is the theory of the very small: the quantum theory describes the properties and motion of atomic and subatomic particles that make possible all the electronic miracles in our living room.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • The Standard Model is sometimes called “the theory of almost everything” because it accurately describes the low-energy universe that we see around us. But it cannot be the final theory, for several reasons: 1. It makes no mention of gravity. Worse, when we combine the Standard Model with Einstein’s theory of gravity, the hybrid theory blows up, giving us nonsense (calculations become infinite, meaning that the theory is useless). 2. It has a strange collection of particles that seem quite contrived. It has thirty-six quarks and anti-quarks, a series of Yang-Mills gluons, leptons (electrons and muons), and Higgs bosons. 3. It has nineteen or so free parameters (masses and couplings of particles) that have to be put in by hand. These masses and couplings are not determined by the theory; no one knows why they have these numerical values.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • far, the leading (and only) candidate to solve this problem is something called string theory, which says that all matter and energy in the universe is composed of tiny strings. Each vibration of the string corresponds to a different subatomic particle. So the electron is not really a point particle. If you had a supermicroscope, you would see that it is not a particle at all but a vibrating string. The electron appears to be a point particle only because the string is so tiny. If the string vibrates at a different frequency, it corresponds to a different particle, such as a quark, mu meson, neutrino, photon, and so on. That is why physicists have discovered such a ridiculous number of subatomic particles. There are literally hundreds, all because they are just different vibrations of a tiny string. In this way, string theory can explain the quantum theory of subatomic particles. According to string theory, as the string moves, it forces space-time to curl up exactly as Einstein predicted, and hence it unifies Einstein’s theory and the quantum theory in a very pleasing fashion.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • if we have a theory of the universe, then what are its initial conditions? Physicists believe that a “theory of everything” should dictate its own initial state, that is, they would prefer that the initial conditions of the Big Bang somehow emerge from the theory itself. String theory, however, does not tell you which of its many solutions is the correct one for our universe. And, without initial conditions, string theory contains an infinite number of parallel universes, called the multiverse, each one as valid as the next.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • One theory is that dark matter is a higher vibration of the superstring. The leading candidate is the superpartner of the photon, which is called the “photino,” or “little photon.” It has all the right properties to be dark matter: it is invisible because it does not interact with light, and yet it has weight and is stable.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • The most recent calculations show that this dark energy acts like antigravity and it is pushing the universe apart. The more the universe expands, the more dark energy there is, which causes it to expand even faster.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • Even the skeptics are forced to admit that the multiverse idea is consistent with the theory called “inflation,” which is a supercharged version of the old Big Bang theory. In this scenario, just before the Big Bang, there was an explosion called inflation that created the universe in the first 10−33 seconds, much faster than the original theory.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • The first is the Copernican principle, which simply states that there is nothing special about the Earth. So the Earth is just a piece of cosmic dust wandering aimlessly through the cosmos. It is just a coincidence that the forces of nature are “tuned” just right.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • (The illusion is caused by parallax. We judge distances by moving our heads. Close objects like trees seem to shift the most, while distant entities like the mountains do not change position at all. But objects immediately next to us that are moving with us also don’t appear to change position. Our brains therefore confuse remote objects, like the moon, with adjacent ones, like the steering wheel in the car, and make us think that both are moving consistently alongside us.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • Physicists were shown to be wrong when Madame Curie and others discovered radioactivity. It is the nuclear force at the core of the Earth, from long-lived radioactive elements like uranium, that has kept Earth’s core hot for billions of years.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

Entropy

  • ‘Dissipative structures’—collections of molecules that have arranged themselves in structures that help a system disperse its energy more efficiently. ”-Origin by Dan Brown.

  • Tornadoes were nature’s way of dispelling a concentrated area of high pressure by converting it into a rotational force that eventually exhausted itself. The same held true for rippled riverbeds, which intercepted the energy of fast -moving currents and dissipated it. Snowflakes dispersed the sun’s energy by forming multifaceted structures that reflected light chaotically outward in all directions.-Origin by Dan Brown.

  • Simply stated, matter self-organizes in an effort to better disperse energy. Nature—in an effort to promote disorder—creates little pockets of order.-Origin by Dan Brown.

  • If blazing sunlight hit a patch of fertile dirt, the physical laws of the earth would create a plant to help dissipate that energy. If deep-ocean sulfur vents created areas of boiling water, life would materialize in those locations and disseminate the energy.-Origin by Dan Brown.

  • “Where do we come from?” he asked. “The truth is—we come from nowhere...and from everywhere. We come from the same laws of physics that create life across the cosmos. We are no t special. We exist with or without God. We are the inevitable result of entropy. Life is not the point of the universe. Life is simply what the universe creates and reproduces in order to dissipate energy.”-Origin by Dan Brown.

  • The second law says that entropy (disorder, chaos, or waste) always increases in a closed system. In this case every machine, every appliance, every apparatus generates waste, in the form of heat.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

String Theory

  • In an attempt to draw everything together, physicists have come up with something called superstring theory. This postulates that all those little things like quarks and leptons that we had previously thought of as particles are actually “strings”—vibrating strands of energy that oscillate in eleven dimensions, consisting of the three we know already plus time and seven other dimensions that are, well, unknowable to us. The strings are very tiny—tiny enough to pass for point particles.-A Short History by Bryson.

Particles

  • Categories—up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom.-A Short History by Bryson.

    • Physicists oddly refer to as their “flavours,” and these are further divided into the colours red, green and blue.-A Short History by Bryson.

  • Hadrons”—a collective term used by physicists for protons, neutrons and other particles governed by the strong nuclear force.-A Short History by Bryson.

  • The arrangement essentially is that among the basic building blocks of matter are quarks; these are held together by particles called gluons; and together quarks and gluons form protons and neutrons, the stuff of the atom’s nucleus. Leptons are the source of electrons and neutrinos. Quarks and leptons together are called fermions. Bosons (named for the Indian physicist S. N. Bose) are particles that produce and carry forces, and include photons and gluons. The Higgs boson may or may not actually exist; it was invented simply as a way of endowing particles with mass.-A Short History by Bryson.

  • Wolfgang Pauli’s Exclusion Principle of 1925, that certain pairs of subatomic particles, even when separated by the most considerable distances, can each instantly “know” what the other is doing. Particles have a quality known as spin and, according to quantum theory, the moment you determine the spin of one particle, its sister particle, no matter how distant away, will immediately begin spinning in the opposite direction and at the same rate.-A Short History by Bryson.

Bernoulli

  • Qn= 28.9 * D^2 sqrt(P), D in inches, P- pressure at nozzle in PSI, Qn: Flow rate in gpm. 

  • P=F/A, Ph= pgh

essential to realize that at present all known physical phenomena, from the Big Bang to the motion of subatomic particles, can be explained by two theories: Einstein’s general theory of relativity and the quantum theory. Together, they represent the bedrock physical laws governing all matter and energy. The first, general relativity, is the theory of the very big: relativity explains the Big Bang, the properties of black holes, and the evolution of the expanding universe. The second is the theory of the very small: the quantum theory describes the properties and motion of atomic and subatomic particles that make possible all the electronic miracles in our living room.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

The Standard Model is sometimes called “the theory of almost everything” because it accurately describes the low-energy universe that we see around us. But it cannot be the final theory, for several reasons: 1. It makes no mention of gravity. Worse, when we combine the Standard Model with Einstein’s theory of gravity, the hybrid theory blows up, giving us nonsense (calculations become infinite, meaning that the theory is useless). 2. It has a strange collection of particles that seem quite contrived. It has thirty-six quarks and anti-quarks, a series of Yang-Mills gluons, leptons (electrons and muons), and Higgs bosons. 3. It has nineteen or so free parameters (masses and couplings of particles) that have to be put in by hand. These masses and couplings are not determined by the theory; no one knows why they have these numerical values.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

far, the leading (and only) candidate to solve this problem is something called string theory, which says that all matter and energy in the universe is composed of tiny strings. Each vibration of the string corresponds to a different subatomic particle. So the electron is not really a point particle. If you had a supermicroscope, you would see that it is not a particle at all but a vibrating string. The electron appears to be a point particle only because the string is so tiny. If the string vibrates at a different frequency, it corresponds to a different particle, such as a quark, mu meson, neutrino, photon, and so on. That is why physicists have discovered such a ridiculous number of subatomic particles. There are literally hundreds, all because they are just different vibrations of a tiny string. In this way, string theory can explain the quantum theory of subatomic particles. According to string theory, as the string moves, it forces space-time to curl up exactly as Einstein predicted, and hence it unifies Einstein’s theory and the quantum theory in a very pleasing fashion.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

if we have a theory of the universe, then what are its initial conditions? Physicists believe that a “theory of everything” should dictate its own initial state, that is, they would prefer that the initial conditions of the Big Bang somehow emerge from the theory itself. String theory, however, does not tell you which of its many solutions is the correct one for our universe. And, without initial conditions, string theory contains an infinite number of parallel universes, called the multiverse, each one as valid as the next.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

One theory is that dark matter is a higher vibration of the superstring. The leading candidate is the superpartner of the photon, which is called the “photino,” or “little photon.” It has all the right properties to be dark matter: it is invisible because it does not interact with light, and yet it has weight and is stable.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

The most recent calculations show that this dark energy acts like antigravity and it is pushing the universe apart. The more the universe expands, the more dark energy there is, which causes it to expand even faster.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

Even the skeptics are forced to admit that the multiverse idea is consistent with the theory called “inflation,” which is a supercharged version of the old Big Bang theory. In this scenario, just before the Big Bang, there was an explosion called inflation that created the universe in the first 10−33 seconds, much faster than the original theory.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

The first is the Copernican principle, which simply states that there is nothing special about the Earth. So the Earth is just a piece of cosmic dust wandering aimlessly through the cosmos. It is just a coincidence that the forces of nature are “tuned” just right.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

(The illusion is caused by parallax. We judge distances by moving our heads. Close objects like trees seem to shift the most, while distant entities like the mountains do not change position at all. But objects immediately next to us that are moving with us also don’t appear to change position. Our brains therefore confuse remote objects, like the moon, with adjacent ones, like the steering wheel in the car, and make us think that both are moving consistently alongside us.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

 

 

Physicists were shown to be wrong when Madame Curie and others discovered radioactivity. It is the nuclear force at the core of the Earth, from long-lived radioactive elements like uranium, that has kept Earth’s core hot for billions of years.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.