Narcotics

Summary/Background

  • If drugs are legalized, then many experts estimate that perhaps 5 percent of the human race would become addicted. But the other 95 percent, seeing how drugs can limit or destroy a person’s life, will steer clear of them, preferring to live in the real world rather than a drug-altered one. Similarly, once virtual reality is perfected, perhaps a similar number of people may prefer to live in cyberspace rather than in the real world, but it is not likely to be an overwhelming number.-The Future of Humanity by Kaku.

  • That second dose of soma had raised a quite impenetrable wall between the actual universe and their minds (sounds like Leonardo).-Brave New World by Huxley.

  • Any activity that transforms the way we perceive reality is enjoyable, a fact that accounts for the attraction of “consciousness-expanding” drugs of all sorts, from magic mushrooms to alcohol to the current Pandora’s box of hallucinogenic chemicals. But consciousness cannot be expanded; all we can do is shuffle its content, which gives us the impression of having broadened it somehow. The price of most artificially induced alterations, however, is that we lose control over that very consciousness we were supposed to expand.-Flow by Czikszentmihalyi.

  • While psychotropic drugs do provide a wider variety of mental experiences than one would not encounter under normal sensory conditions, they do so without adding to our ability to order them effectively.-Flow by Czikszentmihalyi.

  • Rhino horns, sold for $20k/lb, are made of keratin, like your fingernails, have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine but in recent years have become even more sought-after as a high-end party “drug”; at clubs in southeast Asia, powdered horn is snorted like cocaine.-The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert.

  • Tobacco is responsible for the death of 1 in 10 adults worldwide.

Argument For

Argument Against

  • A chemically altered consciousness may bring forth unusual images, thoughts, and feelings that later, when clarity returns, you can use. The danger is that in becoming dependent on chemicals for patterning the mind, you risk losing the ability to control it yourself.-Flow by Czikszentmihalyi.

Potential Solutions


Drug Schedules

  • Schedule I 

    • High potential for abuse.

    • No currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States

    • Lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision.

    • Includes: cannabis, ecstasy, GHB, heroin, LSD, mescaline, and methaqualone

  • Schedule II 

    • High potential for abuse

    • Currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions

    • Abuse of may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

    • Includes amphetamine, cocaine, fentanyl, hydromorphone oxycodone, and hydrocodone.

  • Schedule III 

    • Potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.

    • Have a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

    • Abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

    • Includes anabolic steroids, buprenorphine, and ketamine.

  • Schedule IV 

    • Low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III,

    • Have a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and that the abuse of may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

    • Includes benzodiazepines, modafinil, and tramadol.

  • Schedule V

    • Low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV,

    • Have a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and that the abuse of may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

    • Includes diphenoxylate (in combination with atropine), lacosamide, and pregabalin.


Marijuana

  • Ingredient: Cannabis Sativa aka THC

  • Effect:

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pros:

  • Cons: Long term use could lead to panic disorders, psychosis, depression, ED, decrease in sexual pleasure, restricted sperm mobility.

  • Legality: SKED 1

  • Use: USA: 1 in 8.


Hashisha

  • Ingredient

  • Effect

  • Effective Dose

  • Duration

  • Pro

  • Con

  • Legality

  • Useage


Crystal Meth

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect: Feeling of Euphoria.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons: Loss of Dopamine Receptors.

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Cocaine

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Class: Opiopid


Opiates

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Fentanyl

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Heroin

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Class: Psychedelics


Acid

  • Ingredient: Lysergic Acid Diethylmide (LSD)

    • Created in 1938 in the laboratory of Swiss Chemist  Albert Hofmann, who accidentally dosed himself.

  • Effect:

    • Hallucination and out of body experiences.

    • Makes people feel closer, more open, and more trusting towards others.

    • Paranoia, Increased BP, Increased HR, Increased Body Temp.

    • The effects of acid and mushrooms on the brain aren't so different from each other, although mushrooms are believed to provide a gentler, more manageable trip. Produces more profound changes in consciousness than LSD.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration: 6-11h

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality: Illegal globally except in Czech Rep, Ecuador, Mex.

  • Useage:


Ayahuasca

  • Ingredient: Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

    • According to the geographer Manuel Villavicencio, indigenous people of Ecuador used this leafy brew to help them guess, predict, and answer the universes difficult questions. He imbibed the "magic drink" with tea in the mid 1800s.

  • Effect:

    • Ayahuasca has been described as life-changing and reality- imploding. In one study, tourists who tried it in Peru said it helped them understand themselves and others better.

    • Nausea, Vomiting, High BP, Increased HR, Agitation, Pupil Dilation.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration: 4-7h

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality: Illegal globally except in Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, NL.

  • Useage:


Ibogaine

  • Ingredient:

    • Derived from the root bark of the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga. It is typically chewed  or swallowed with water. Tribes people in Africa have historically used it in religious ceremonies.

  • Effect: May possibly treat various addictions.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons: Dangerous for people with heart problems, may cause life threatening complications and sudden death.

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Magic Mushrooms

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

    • The effects of acid and mushrooms on the brain aren't so different from each other, although mushrooms are believed to provide a gentler, more manageable trip. Produces more profound changes in consciousness than LSD.

    • Vomiting, Diarrhea, Sweats.

    • Evidence exists that humans have been enjoying the active ingredient in magic mushrooms for millennia.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration: 3-6h

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality: Illegal globally except in Austria, Brazil, BVI, Czech Rep, NL.

  • Useage: Psilocybin


MDMA aka Molly aka Ecstasy

  • Ingredient:

    • Synthesized in 1912 by the German conglomerate Merck- the same pharmaceutical company that brought us vaccines for rubella and mumps.

  • Effect:

    • Brings on the long-lasting feeling of intense euphoria, higher energy, pleasant body sensations, and an increase in empathy.

    • Seizures, Dizziness, Nausea High BP, Dangerously High Body Temp, Kidney Failiure.

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Useage:


Peyote

  • Ingredient:

  • Effect:

    • Advocates claim that this hallucinogen can precipitate profound visions an, with regular use, an unparalleled understanding of the world: past, present, and future.

    • Psychotic Fits, Increase HR, Agitation. 

  • Effective Dose:

  • Duration:

  • Pro:

  • Cons:

  • Legality:

  • Usage:

    • Scientists have traced the use of peyote, found in the North American spineless cactus Lophophora williamsii, to at least 10000 BC in what is now the US, putting peyote alongside mushrooms on the list of the oldest known recreational drugs on the planet.